Why I question many scientific statements.

From a few of the previous posts, where I have ventured into science, it may be obvious that I am not putting forward standard views. That leaves three possibilities: I don’t know what I am talking about; I am wrong; I might even be right. One of those options makes a lot of people who listen to what I say uncomfortable. Comfort comes when everything falls into place with your preconceptions; a challenge to those preconceptions requires you to think, and it is surprising how few scientists want to be the first person to stand up and support a challenge. So, why am I like that?

It started with my PhD. My supervisor gave me a project; it was a good project, but unfortunately it got written up in the latest volume of Journal of the American Chemical Society after I have been three weeks into it. He gave me two new projects to choose from whereupon he went away on summer holidays. One was, as far as I could see, hopeless, and worse than that, it was highly dangerous. The second I could finish straight away! He wanted me to measure the rates of a reaction of certain materials, and according to the scientific journals, it did not go. So, I was told to design my own project, which I did. I entered a controversy that had emerged. For those who know some chemistry, the question was, does a cyclopropane ring engage in electronic conjugative effects with adjacent unsaturated substituents? (Don’t worry if that means nothing to you; it hardly affects the story. A very rough explanation is, do they slosh over to other groups outside the ring, or must they stay within the ring?) There were a number of properties of compounds that included this structure that had unusual properties and there seemed to be two choices: the proposed quantum effects, or the effects of the strain.

This looked fairly straightforward, but I soon found out that my desire to do something that would not be easily done by someone else had its price: the chemical compounds I wanted to use were difficult to make, but I made them. The first series of compounds were not exceptionally helpful because a key one decomposed during measurement of the effect, but I soon got some definitive measurements through a route I had not expected when I started. (Isn’t it always the way that the best way of doing something is not what you started out trying to do?) The results were very clear and very definitive: the answer to the question was, “No.”

The problem then was that the big names had decided that the answer was yes. My problem was, while I had shown conclusively (to my mind, at least) that it did not, nevertheless there were a number of properties that could not be explained by what everyone thought the alternative was, so I re-examined the alternative. I concluded that because the strain was caused by the electrical charge being moved towards the centre of the ring, the movement was responsible for the effects. Essentially, I was applying parts of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, which is a very sound part of physics.

What happened next was surprising. In my PhD thesis defence, there were no real questions about my theory. It was almost as if the examiner did not want to go down that path. I continued with my career, waiting for my supervisor to publish my work, but the only paper was one that kept away from controversy. Accordingly, I decided to publish papers on my own. Unfortunately, my first one was not very good. I wanted to get plenty of material in, and I had been told to be brief. Brevity was not a virtue, because I later found out nobody really understood the first part. That was my fault, thanks to the brevity, but the good news was, from my point of view, while that first paper used one piece of observational fact to fix a constant, and thus calculate the key variable, every time subsequently I took the theory into uncharted waters, it always came up with essentially correct agreement with observation. I calculated a sequence of spectral shifts to within almost exact agreement, while the quantum theory everyone else was using could not even get the direction of the shifts right. So I should have been happy, right?

What happened next was that a few years later, a review came out to settle the question, and it landed on the quantum side of things. It did so by ignoring everything that did not agree with it! I was meanwhile employed, and I could not devote time to this matter, but much later, I wrote a different review. The journals I submitted it to did not want it. One rejected it because there were too many mathematics; others said they did not want logic analyses. I posted it on the Chemweb preprint server, but that seems to be history because while it is supposedly still there, I cannot find it. If anyone wants to see it, enquire below. My key point is that the review shows over sixty different types of experiments that falsify the standard position, but nobody is interested. All the work that falsified the prevalent dogma has been buried. Yes, it is still in the literature, but if Google cannot even find my publication when I know the title and the date and the location, how can anyone else find what they do not know about?

So, this is an aberration? I wish. I shall continue in this vein from time to time.

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