Most people probably think that science is a rather dull quest for the truth, best left to the experts, who are all out to find the truth. Well, not exactly. Here is a video link where Sean Carroll points out that most physicists are really uninterested in understanding what quantum mechanics is about: https://youtu.be/ZacggH9wB7Y
This is rather awkward because quantum mechanics is one of the two greatest scientific advances of the twentieth century, and here we find all but a few of its exponents really neither understand what is going on nor do they care. What happens is they have a procedure by which they can get answers, so that is all that matters, is it not? Not in my opinion. What happens thereafter is that many of these are University teachers, and when they don’t care, that gets passed on to the students, so they don’t care. The system is degenerating.
But, you protest, we still get the right answers. That leaves open the question, do we really? From my experience in chemistry, we know that the only theories required to explain chemical observations (apart from maybe what atoms are made of) are electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. Those in the know will know there are floods of computational papers published so we must understand? Not at all. Almost all the papers calculate something that is known, and because integrating the differential equations means a number of constants are required, and because it is impossible to solve the equations analytically, the constants can be assigned so the correct answers are obtained. Fortunately, for very similar problems the same constants will suffice. If you find that hard to believe, the process is called validation, and you can read about it in John Pople’s Nobel Prize lecture. Actually, I believe all the computations are wrong except for the hydrogen molecule because everybody uses the wrong wave functions, but that is another matter.
That scientists do not care about their most important theory is bad, but there is worse, as published in Nature ( https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-021-01436-7) Apparently, in 2005 three PhD students wrote a computer program called SCIgen for amusement. What this program does is write “scientific papers”. The research for them? Who needs that? It cobbles together words with random titles, text and charts and is essentially nonsense. Anyone can write them. (Declaration: I did not use this software for this or any other post!) While the original purpose was for “maximum amusement” and papers were generated for conferences, because the software is freely available various people have sent them to scientific journals , the peer review process failed to spot the gibberish, and the journals published them. There are apparently hundreds of these nonsensical papers floating around. Further, they can be for relatively “big names” because apparently articles can get through under someone’s name without the someone knowing anything about it. Why give someone else an additional paper? A big name is more likely to get through peer review and the writer needs to get it out there because they can be published with genuine references, although of course with no relevance to the submission. The reason for doing this is simple: it pads the number of citations for the cited authors, which is necessary to make their CV look better and to improve the chances when applying for funds. With money at stake, it is hardly surprising that sort of fraud has crept in.
Another unsettling aspect to scientific funding has been uncovered (Nature 593: 490 -491). Funding panels are more likely to give EU early-career grants to applicants connected to the granting panelists’ institutions, in other words the panelists have this tendency to give the money to “themselves”. Oops. A study of the grants showed that “applicants who shared both a home and a host organization with one panellist or more received a grant 40% more often than average” and “the success rate for connected applicants was approximately 80% higher than average in the life sciences and 40% higher in the social sciences and humanities, but there seemed to be no discernible effect in physics and engineering.” Here, physics is clean! One explanation might be that the best applicants want to go to the most prestigious institutions. Maybe, but would that not apply to physics? An evaluation to test such bias in the life sciences showed “successful and connected applicants scored worse on these performance indicators than did funded applicants without such links, and even some unsuccessful applicants.” You can draw your own conclusions, but they are not good looking.