Molecular Oxygen in a Comet

There is a pressure, these days, on scientists to be productive. That is fair enough – you don’t want them slacking off in a corner, but a problem arises when this leads to the publication of papers: there are so many of them that nobody can keep up with even a small fraction of them. Worse, many of them do not seem to say much. Up to a point, this has an odd benefit: if you leave a lot unclear, all your associates can publish away and cite you, which has this effect of making you seem more important because funders like to count citations. In short, with obvious exceptions, the less you advance the science, the more important you seem at second level funding. I am going to pick, maybe unfairly, on one paper from Nature Astronomy ( as an illustration.

One of the most unexpected findings in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was “a large amount” of molecular oxygen. Something to breathe! Potential space pilots should not get excited; “a large amount” is only large with respect to what they expected, which was none. At the time, this was a surprise to astronomers because molecular oxygen is rather reactive and it is difficult to see why it would be present. Now there is a “breakthrough”: it has been concluded there is not that much oxygen in the comet at all, but this oxygen came from a separate small reservoir. The “clue” came from the molecular oxygen being associated with molecular water when emitted from a warm site. As it got cooler, any oxygen was associated with carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide. Now, you may well wonder what sort of clue that is? My question is, given there is oxygen there, what would you expect? The comet is half water, so when the surface gets warm, it sublimes. When cooler, only gases at that lower temperature get emitted. What is the puzzle?

However, the authors of the paper came to a different conclusion. They decided that there had to be a deep reservoir of oxygen within the comet, and a second reservoir close to the surface that is made of porous frozen water. According to them, oxygen in the core works its way to the surface and gets trapped in the second reservoir. Note that this is an additional proposition to the obvious one that oxygen was trapped in ice near the surface. We knew there was gas trapped in ice that was released with heat, so why postulate multiple reservoirs, other than to get a paper published?

So, where did this oxygen come from? There are two possibilities. The first is it was accreted with the gas from the disk when the comet formed. This is somewhat difficult to accept. Ordinary chemistry suggests that if oxygen molecules were present in the interstellar dust cloud it should react with hydrogen and form water. Maybe that conclusion is somehow wrong, but we can find out. We can estimate the probability by observing the numerous dust clouds from which stars accrete. As far as I am aware, nobody has ever found rich amounts of molecular oxygen in them. The usual practice when you are proposing something unusual is you find some sort of supporting evidence. Seemingly, not this time.

The second possibility is that we know how molecular oxygen could be formed at the surface. High energy photons and solar wind smash water molecules in ice to form hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The hydrogen escapes to space but the hydroxyl radicals unite to form hydrogen peroxide or other peroxides or superoxides, which can work their way into the ice. There are a number of other solids that catalyse the degradation of peroxides and superoxides back to oxygen, which would be trapped in the ice, but released when the ice sublimed. So, from the chemist’s point of view there is a fairly ordinary explanation why oxygen might be formed and gather near the surface. From my point of view, Occam’s Razor should apply: you use the simplest explanation unless there is good evidence. I do not see any evidence about the interior of the comet.

Does it matter? From my point of view when someone with some sort of authority/standing says something like this, there is the danger that the next paper will say “X established that . . “  and it becomes almost a gospel. This is especially so when the assertion cannot be easily challenged with evidence as you cannot get inside that comet. Which gives the perverse realization that you need strong evidence to challenge an assertion, but maybe no evidence at all to assert it in the first place. Weird?

Ebook Discount

For a short  time my ebook Spoliation is price reduced on Amazon. Unlike Kindle Countdowns, this discount applies world-wide, and I am experimenting to see how effective this strategy is.

The Board, is a ruthless, shadowy organization with limitless funds that employs space piracy and terrorism. A disgraced Captain Jonas Stryker is acting as an asteroid miner, and when The Board resorts to using a weaponised asteroid to get its way, only Stryker can divert the asteroid. The Board is determined to have Stryker killed, officially he is wanted for murder, so Stryker must expose and destroy this organization to have any future.

A story of greed, corruption and honour, combining science and visionary speculation that goes from the high frontier to outback Australia. The background also gives a scientific perspective on asteroid mining.

Don’t Look Up

No, I am not going to discuss the film, the merits of which you can decide for yourself. However, it might be worth considering some of the things it says about the way we consider and treat science. What the film is supposed to say is that those in society with the power to do something about a crisis wilfully avoid taking action. Consider the excuses for doing nothing.

The film presents a wipe-out event that we will be struck by a comet. The probability of this happening is assessed at 99.8%. So it is not 100%? What we have to recognize that scientific measurements have errors in them. Statistically we make lots of measurements and use a statistical analysis, and while someone in the movie says “Scientists never like to say 100%” that is wrong too. Scientists do not like or dislike; they report the mathematics, and a statistical spread cannot give a 100% because that denies the initial spread. Further, that 0.2% is not physically meaningful either because the errors due to instruments are not randomly probable, but nobody is going to waste time working out the error function for every piece of equipment. Statistical analysis takes care of that. To gain perspective, consider a bag of 1000 50 calibre bullets. You are assured two are blank. One is placed into a gun. What amount of money do you need, if you survive, to put your head in front of the barrel when it is fired?

A second problem for scientists is that long-term realities will be ignored by the public. This more relevant to something like climate change. What are you prepared to do to avoid a major problem fifty years down the track? For many, not a lot, so they ignore the problem on the grounds that it can be dealt with “later”. Related to this are the economic considerations. One response is we cannot afford to do something. When we hear that we seldom see what the costs are of not doing said something. Again, the response might be, but you do not absolutely know that will solve the problem. No, we do not, but that is because we do not think there will be one simple solution for a problem like climate change.

Another response is to rely on technological changes. For an approaching comet, there are probably no other choices. You either construct some space vehicle that will push the comet off course or it strikes you. To make that work, a major investment in development work would be required, since we do not have such a vehicle now. As it happens, for this scenario NASA is doing work, and around the end of September a space vehicle weighing 550 kg will slam into an asteroid called Dimorphos. This is part of a double asteroid system, and we will be able to follow the effect of the impact in fine detail because it will alter the orbital characteristics of Dimorphos as paired with Didymos, the larger companion. The problem with something like climate change is that while technology might fix it, we are not doing the research and development needed to make it work.

Society seems to work against science, simply because people do not trust it. Over 5 million have died with Covid 19, yet we have many very active antivaxxers trying to persuade others not to be vaccinated. The interesting question is why? It is one thing to refuse to be vaccinated yourself, but why impose these views on others?  In their effort το persuade others they spread completely stupid stories. Recall the story that Bill Gates was inserting nano-trackers into the vaccine so he could know what everyone was doing? There are also stories with an element of truth but with no comprehension of relevance. Like our 98.8% above, they focus on the 0.2%. There is a tiny segment of the populations that respond adversely to certain vaccines. The medical profession knows this, and can look out for them and treat them properly if such an event occurs. These stories totally ignore what would happen to these far more sensitive people if the virus struck them. Finally, there is a tendency for navel-gazing. Consider our experiment on Dimorphos. There is a view, “What right have we to change the solar system?” If we took this view to the limit, we would still be hunter-gatherers and our biggest problem would be that lion in the shrubbery planning on eating us. Dimorphos is a lump of rock. It does not have feelings. It is not planning its future. The allied question, do your sensitivities about the Universe and the pristine nature of rocks in it give you the right to prevent the killing of billions of innocent people who do not share your view?

What Happens Inside Ice Giants?

Uranus and Neptune are a bit weird, although in fairness that may be because we don’t really know much about them. Our information is restricted to what we can see in telescopes (not a lot) and the Voyager fly-bys, which, of course, also devoted a lot of attention to the Moons, since a lot of effort was devoted to images. The planets are rather large featureless balls of gas and cloud and you can only do so much on a “zoom-past”. One of the odd things is the magnetic fields. On Earth, the magnetic field axis corresponds with the axis of rotation, more or less, but not so much there. Earth’s magnetic field is believed to be due to a molten iron core, but that could not occur there. That probably needs explaining. The iron in the dust that is accreted to form planets is a fine powder; the particles are in the micron size. The Earth’s core arises because the iron formed lumps, melted, and flowed to the core because it is denser. In my ebook “Planetary Formation and Biogenesis” I argue that the iron actually formed lumps in the accretion disk. While the star was accreting, the region around where Earth is reached something like 1600 degrees C, above the melting point of iron, so it formed globs. We see the residues of that in the iron-cored meteorites that sometimes fall to Earth. However, Mars does not appear to have an iron core. Within that model, the explanation is simple. While on Earth the large lumps of iron flowed towards the centre, on Mars, since the disk temperature falls off with distance from the star, at 1.5 AU the large lumps did not form. As a consequence, the fine iron particles could not move through the highly viscous silicates, and instead reacted with water and oxidised, or, if you prefer, rusted.

If the lumps that formed for Earth could not form at Mars because it was too far away from the star, the situation was worse for Uranus. As with Mars, the iron would be accreted as a fine dust and as the ice giants started to warm up from gravitational collapse, the iron, once it got to about 500 degrees Centigrade, would rapidly react with the water and oxidise to form iron oxides and hydrogen. Why did that not happen in the accretion disk? Maybe it did, and maybe at Mars it was always accreted as iron oxides, but by the time it got to where Earth is, there would be at least ten thousand times more hydrogen than iron, and hot hydrogen reduces iron oxide to iron. Anyway, Uranus and Neptune will not have an iron core, so what could generate the magnetic fields? Basically, you need moving electric charge. The planets are moving (rotating) so where does the charge come from?

The answer recently proposed is superionic ice. You will think that ice melts at 0 degrees Centigrade, and yes, it does, but only at atmospheric pressure. Increase the pressure and it melts at a lower temperature, which is how you make snowballs. But ice is weird. You may think ice is ice, but that is not exactly correct. There appear to be about twenty ices possible from water, although there are controversial aspects because high pressure work is very difficult and while you get information, it is not always clear about what it refers to. You may think that irrespective of that, ice will be liquid at the centre of these planets because it will be too hot for a solid. Maybe.

In a recent publication (Nature Physics, 17, 1233-1238 November 2021) authors studied ice in a diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 150 GPa (which is about 1.5 million times greater than our atmospheric pressure) and about 6,500 degrees K (near enough to Centigrade at this temperature). They interpret their observations as there being superionic ice there. The use of “about” is because there will be uncertainty due to the laser heating, and the relatively short times up there. (Recall diamond will also melt.)

A superionic ice is proposed wherein because of the pressure, the hydrogen nuclei can move about the lattice of oxygen atoms, and they are the cause of the electrical conduction. These conditions are what are expected deep in the interior but not at the centre of these two planets. There will presumably be zones where there is an equilibrium between the ice and liquid, and convection of the liquid coupled with the rotation will generate the movement of charge necessary to make the magnetism. At least, that is one theory. It may or may not be correct.

Your Water Came from Where?

One interesting question when considering why Earth has life is from where did we get our water? This is important because essentially it is the difference between Earth and Venus. Both are rocky planets of about the same size. They each have similar amounts of carbon dioxide, with Venus having about 50% more than Earth, and four times the amount of nitrogen, but Venus is extremely short of water. If we are interested in knowing about whether there is life on other planets elsewhere in the cosmos, we need to know about this water issue. The reason Venus is hell and Earth is not is not that Venus is closer to the Sun (although that would make Venus warmer than Earth) but rather it has no water. What happened on Earth is that the water dissolved the CO2 to make carbonic acid, which in turn weathered rocks to make the huge deposits of lime, dolomite, etc that we have on the planet, and to make the bicarbonates in the sea.

One of the more interesting scientific papers has just appeared in Nature Astronomy ( although the reason I find it interesting may not meet with the approval of the authors. What the authors did was to examine a grain of the dust retrieved from the asteroid Itokawa by the Japanese Space agency and “found it had water on its surface”. Note it had not evaporated after millions of years in a vacuum. The water is produced, so they say, by space weathering. What happens is that the sun sends out bursts of solar wind which contains high velocity protons. Space dust is made of silicates, which involve silica bound to four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedron, and each oxygen atom is bound to something else. Suppose, for sake of argument, the something else is a magnesium atom. A high energy hydrogen nucleus (a proton) strikes it and makes SiOH and, say Mg+, with the Mg ion and the silicon atom remaining bound to whatever else they were bound to. It is fairly standard chemistry that 2SiOH → SiOSi plus H2O, so we have made water. Maybe, because the difference between SiOH on a microscopic sample of dust and dust plus water is rather small, except, of course, Si-OH is chemically bound to and is part of the rock, and rock does not evaporate. However, the alleged “clincher”: the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen on this dust grain was the same as Earth’s water.

Earth’s water has about 5 times more deuterium than solar hydrogen, Venus about a hundred times. The enhancement arises because if anything is to break the bond in H-O-D, the hydrogen is slightly more probable to go because the deuterium has a slightly stronger bond to the oxygen. Also, being slightly heavier, H-O-D is slightly less likely to get to the top of the atmosphere.

So, a light bulb moment: Earth’s water came from space dust. They calculate that this would produce twenty litres of water for every cubic meter of rock. This dust is wet! If that dust rained down on Earth it would deliver a lot of water. The authors suggest about half the water here came that way, while the rest came from carbonaceous chondrites, which have the same D/H ratio.

So, notice anything? There are two problems when forming a theory. First, the theory should account for everything of relevance. In practice this might be a little much, but there should be no obvious problems. Second, the theory should have no obvious inconsistencies. First, let us look at the “everything”. If the dust rained down on the Earth, why did not the same amount rain down on Venus? There is a slight weakness in this argument because if it did, maybe the water was largely destroyed by the sunlight. If that happened a high D/H ratio would result, and that is found on Venus. However, if you accept that, why did Earth’s water not also have its D/H ratio increased? The simplest explanation would be that it did, but not to extent of Venus because Earth had more water to dilute it. Why did the dust not rain down on the Moon? If the answer is the dust had been blown away by the time the Moon was formed, that makes sense, except now we are asking the water to be delivered at the time of accretion, and the evidence on Mars was that water was not there until about 500 million years later. If it arrived before the disk dust was lost, then the strongest supply of water would come closest to the star, and by the time we got to Earth, it would be screened by inner dust. Venus would be the wettest and it isn’t.

Now the inconsistencies. The strongest flux of solar wind at this distance would be what bombards the Moon, and while the dust was only here for a few million years, the Moon has been there for 4.5 billion years. Plenty of time to get wet. Except it has not. The surface of the dust on the Moon shows this reaction, and there are signs of water on the Moon, especially in the more polar regions, and the average Moon rock has got some water. But the problem is these solar winds only hit the surface. Thus the top layer or so of atoms might react, but nothing inside that layer. We can see those SiOH bonds with infrared spectroscopy, but the Moon, while it has some such molecules, it cannot be described as wet. My view is this is another one of those publications where people have got carried away, more intent on getting a paper that gets cited for their CV than actually stopping and thinking about a problem.

Asteroid (16) Psyche – Again! Or Riches Evaporate, Again

Thanks to my latest novel “Spoliation”, I have had to take an interest in asteroid mining. I discussed this in a previous post ( in which I mentioned the asteroid (16) Psyche. As I wrote, there were statements saying the asteroid had almost unlimited mineral resources. Initially, it was estimated to have a density (g/cc) of about 7, which would make it more or less solid iron. It should be noted this might well be a consequence of extreme confirmation bias. The standard theory has it that certain asteroids differentiated and had iron cores, then collided and the rock was shattered off, leaving the iron cores. Iron meteorites are allegedly the result of collisions between such cores. If so, it has been estimated there have to be about 75 iron cores floating around out there, and since Psyche had a density so close to that of iron (about 7.87) it must be essentially solid iron. As I wrote in that post, “other papers have published values as low as 1.4 g/cm cubed, and the average value is about 3.5 g/cm cubed”. The latest value is 3.78 + 0.34.

These varied numbers show how difficult it is to make these observations. Density is mass per volume. We determine the volume by considering the size and we can measure the “diameter”, but the target is a very long way away, it is small, so it is difficult to get an accurate “diameter”. The next point is it is not a true sphere, so there are extra “bits” of volume with hills, or “bits missing” with craters. Further, the volume depends on a diameter cubed, so if you make a ten percent error in the “diameter” you have a 30% error overall. The mass has to be estimated from its gravitational effects on something else. That means you have to measure the distance to the asteroid, the distance to the other asteroid, and determine the difference from expected as they pass each other. This difference may be quite tiny. Astronomers are working at the very limit of their equipment.

A quick pause for some silicate chemistry. Apart from granitic/felsic rocks, which are aluminosilicates, most silicates come in two classes of general formula: A – olivines X2SiO4 or B – pyroxenes XSiO3, where X is some mix of divalent metals, usually mainly magnesium or iron (hence their name, mafic, the iron being ferrous). However, calcium is often present. Basically, these elements are the most common metals in the output of a supernova, with magnesium being the most. For olivines, if X is only magnesium, the density for A (forsterite) is 3.27 and for B (enstatite) 3.2. If X is only iron, the density for A (fayalite) is 4.39 and for B (ferrosilite) 4.00. Now we come to further confirmation bias: to maintain the iron content of Psyche, the density is compared to enstatite chondrites, and the difference made up with iron. Another way to maintain the concept of “free iron” is the proposition that the asteroid is made of “porous metal”. How do you make that? A porous rock, like pumice, is made by a volcano spitting out magma with water dissolved in it, and as the pressure drops the water turns to steam. However, you do not get any volatile to dissolve in molten iron.

Another reason to support the iron concept was that the reflectance spectrum was “essentially featureless”. The required features come from specific vibrations, and a metal does not have any. Neither does a rough surface that scatters light. The radar albedo (how bright it is with reflected light) is 0.34, which implies a surface density of 3.5, which is argued to indicate either metal with 50% porosity, or solid silicates (rock). It also means no core is predicted. The “featureless spectrum” was claimed to have an absorption at 3 μm, indicating hydroxyl, which indicates silicate. There is also a signal corresponding to an orthopyroxene. The emissivity indicates a metal content greater than 20% at the surface, but if this were metal, there should be a polarised emission, and that is completely absent. At this point, we should look more closely at what “metal” means. In many cases, while it is used to convey what we would consider as a metal, the actual use includes chemical compounds with a  metallic element. The iron levels may be as iron sulphide, the oxide, or, as what I believe the answer is, the silicate. I think we are looking at the iron content of average rock. Fortune does not await us there.

In short, the evidence is somewhat contradictory, in part because we are using spectroscopy at the limits of its usefulness. NASA intends to send a mission to evaluate the asteroid and we should wait for that data.

But what about iron cored asteroids? We know there are metallic iron meteorites so where did they come from? In my ebook “Planetary Formation and Biogenesis”, I note that the iron meteorites, from isotope dating, are amongst the oldest objects in the solar system, so I argue they were made before the planets, and there were a large number of them, most of which ended up in planetary cores. The meteorites we see, if that is correct, never got accreted, and finally struck a major body for the first time.

Food on Mars

Settlers on Mars will have needs, but the most obvious ones are breathing and eating, and both of these are likely to involve plants. Anyone thinking of going to Mars should think about these, and if you look at science fiction the answers vary. Most simply assume everything is taken care of, which is fair enough for a story. Then there is the occasional story with slightly more detail. Andy Weir’s “The Martian” is simple. He grows potatoes. Living on such a diet would be a little spartan, but his hero had no option, being essentially a Robinson Crusoe without a Man Friday. The oxygen seemed to be a given. The potatoes were grown in what seemed to be a pressurised plastic tent and to get water, he catalytically decomposed hydrazine to make hydrogen and then he burnt that. A plastic tent would not work. The UV radiation would first make the tent opaque so the necessary light would not get in very well, then the plastic would degrade. As for making water, burning hydrazine as it was is sufficient, but better still, would they not put their base where there was ice?

I also have a novel (“Red Gold”) where a settlement tries to get started. Its premise is there is a main settlement with fusion reactors and hence have the energy to make anything, but the main hero is “off on his own” and has to make do with less, but can bring things from the main settlement. He builds giant “glass houses” made with layers of zinc-rich glass that shield the inside from UV radiation. Stellar plasma ejections are diverted by a superconducting magnet at the L1 position between Mars and the sun (proposed years before NASA suggested it) and the hero lives in a cave. That would work well for everything except cosmic radiation, but is that going to be that bad? Initially everyone lives on hydroponically grown microalgae, but the domes permit ordinary crops. The plants grow in treated soil, but as another option a roof is put over a minor crater and water provided (with solar heating from space) in which macroalgae grow and marine microalgae, as well as fish and other species, like prawns. The atmosphere is nitrogen, separated from the Martian atmosphere, and some carbon dioxide, and the plants make oxygen. (There would have to be some oxygen to get started, but plants on Earth grew without oxygen initially.)

Since then there have been other quite dramatic proposals from more official sources that assume a lot of automation to begin with. One of the proposals involves constructing huge greenhouses by covering a crater or valley. (Hey, I suggested that!) but the roof is flat and made of plastic, the plastic being made from polyethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate, a polyester made from carbohydrates grown by the plants. This is used as a bonding agent to make a concrete from Martian rock. (In my novel, I explained why a cement is very necessary, but there are limited uses.) The big greenhouse model has some limitations. In this, the roof is flat, and in essentially two layers, and in between are vertical stacks of algae growing in water. The extra value here is that water filters out the effect of cosmic rays, although you need several meters of it. Now we have a problem. The idea is that underneath this there is a huge habitat, and for every cubic meter of water, we have one tonne mass, and on Mars, about 0.4 tonne of force on the lower flat deck. If this bottom deck is the opaque concrete, then something bound by plastic adhesion will slip. (Our concrete on bridges is only inorganic, and the binding is chemical, not physical, and further there is steel reinforcing.) Below this there would need to be many weight-bearing pillars. And there would need to be light generation between the decks (to get the algae to grow) and down below. Nuclear power would make this easy. Food can be grown as algae in between decks, or in the ground down below.

As I see it, construction of this would take quite an effort and a huge amount of materials. The concept is the plants could be grown to make the cement to make the habitat, but hold on, where are the initial plants going to grow, and who/what does all the chemical processing? The plan is to have that in place from robots before anyone gets there but I think that is greatly overambitious. In “Red Gold” I had the glass made from regolith processed with the fusion energy. The advantage of glass over this new suggestion is weight; even on Mars with its lower gravity millions of tonnes remains a serious weight. The first people there will have to live somewhat more simply.

Another plan that I have seen involves finding a frozen lake in a crater, and excavating an “under-ice” habitat. No shortage of water, or screening from cosmic rays, but a problem as I see it is said ice will melt from the heat, erode the bottom of the sheet, and eventually it will collapse. Undesirable, that is.

All of these “official” options use artificial lighting. Assuming a nuclear reactor, that is not a problem in itself, although it would be for the settlement under the ice because heat control would be a problem. However, there is more to getting light than generating energy. What gives off the light, and what happens when its lifetime expires? Do you have to have a huge number of spares? Can they be made on Mars?

There is also the problem with heat. In my novel I solved this with mirrors in space focussing more sunlight on selected spots, and of course this provides light to help plants grow, but if you are going to heat from fission power a whole lot more electrical equipment is needed. Many more things to go wrong, and when it could take two years to get a replacement delivered, complicated is what you do not want. It is not going to be that easy.

Why Plate Tectonics?

How did plate tectonics start? Why has Earth got them and none of the rocky planets have, at least as far as we know? In my ebook “Planetary Formation and Biogenesis” my explanation as to one of the reasons for why plate tectonics are absent on Mars is that the Martian basaltic mantle appears to have about 17% iron oxide whle Earth has 7 – 11%. This means it cannot make eclogite whereas Earth’s basalt can. Eclogite is a particularly dense silicate and it is only made under serious pressure. 

To see the significance, we have to ask ourselves how plate tectonics works. The core generates hot spots, and hotter mantle material rises and has to push aside other rock, and we get what we call seafloor spreading, although it does not have to be underwater. The African rift valley is an example, in this case a relatively new example where the African plate is dividing, and eventually will have sea between Somalia and the Nubian zone. Similarly, the Icelandic volcanoes are due to “seafloor spreading”. Thus matter coming up pushes the surface plates aside, but then what? On Mars, the cold basalt has nowhere to go so it forms what is called a “stagnant lid”, and heat can only escape through volcanism. On Mars, this resulted in quite significant volcanism about three and a half billion years ago, then this more or less stopped, although not as much as some think because there is evidence of volcanic eruptions around Elysium within the last two million years. The net result is the “lid” gradually gets thicker, and stronger, which means the heat loss of the Martian mantle is actually much less than that of Earth.

On Earth, what happens is that as the basaltic plates get pushed aside, one goes under another, and this is where then eclogite becomes relevant. As the plate goes down, the increased pressure causes the basalt to form eclogite, and because it is denser than its surroundings, gravity makes it go deeper. It is this pull subduction that keeps plate tectonics going.

So, what about Venus? The usual answer is that Venus had a stagnant lid, but at certain intervals the internal heat is so great there is a general overturn and there is a general resurfacing. However, maybe that is not exactly correct. Our problem with Venus is we cannot see the surface thanks to the clouds. The best we can manage is through radar, and recent (June, 2021) information has provided some surprises (Byrne, et al.,  Basically, what was found was evidence that many of the lowlands had broken into crustal blocks and these blocks are moving relative to each other, in the same way as pack ice moves. The cause would be mantle convection that stresses the crust. The Venusian crust has many landforms, including thin belts where crust has been pushed together to form ridges, or pulled apart to form troughs. However, these ones tend to encompass low-lying regions that are not deformed, but rather appear to be individual blocks that shift, rotate and slide past each other. The authors suggest this what Earth was like before plate tectonics got going.

As to why they started here and not there has no obvious answer. The fact that Earth rotates far more quickly will generate much stronger Coriolis forces. It may be that the absence of water on Venus removes a potential lubricant, but that seems unlikely if blocks of crust are moving. My personal view is that one key point is it needs something to force the crust downwards. Eclogite may pull it down, but something has to push the basalt down to force it to make eclogite. My guess here is that Earth has one thing the other rocky planets do not have: granitic continents. Granite floats on basalt, so if a basaltic mass was pushed against a significant granitic mass, the granite would slide over the top and its weight would push the basalt down. When it made eclogite, the denser basalt would continue its downward motion, pulling a plate with it. Is that right? Who knows, but at least it looks plausible to me.

A Discovery on Mars

Our space programs now seem to be focusing in the increasingly low concentrations or more obscure events, as if this will tell us something special. Recall earlier there was the supposed finding of phosphine in the Venusian atmosphere. Nothing like stirring up controversy because this was taken as a sign of life. As an aside, I wonder how many people actually have ever noticed phosphine anywhere? I have made it in the lab, but that hardly counts. It is not a very common material, and the signal in the Venusian atmosphere was almost certainly due to sulphur dioxide. That in itself is interesting when you ask how would that get there? The answer is surprisingly simple: sulphuric acid is known to be there, and it is denser, and might form a fog or even rain, but as it falls it hits the hotter regions near the surface and pyrolysis to form sulphur dioxide, oxygen and water. These rise, the oxygen reacts with sulphur dioxide to make sulphur trioxide (probably helped by solar radiation), which in turn reacts with water to form sulphuric acid, which in turn is why the acid stays in the atmosphere. Things that have a stable level on a planet often have a cycle.

In February this year, as reported in Physics World, a Russian space probe detected hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere of Mars after a dust storm occurred. This was done with a spectrometer that looked at sunlight as it passed through the atmosphere, and materials such as hydrogen chloride would be picked up as a darkened line at the frequency for the bond vibration in the infrared part of the spectrum. The single line, while broadened due to rotational options, would be fairly conclusive. I found the article to be interesting for all sorts of reasons, one of which was for stating the obvious. Thus it stated that dust density was amplified in the atmosphere during a global dust storm. Who would have guessed that? 

Then with no further explanation, the hydrogen chloride could be generated by water vapour interacting with the dust grains. Really? As a chemist my guess would be that the dust had wet salt on it. UV radiation and atmospheric water vapour would oxidise that, to make at first sodium hypochlorite, like domestic bleach and then hydrogen.  From the general acidity we would then get hydrogen chloride and probably sodium carbonate dust. They were then puzzled as to how the hydrogen chloride disappeared. The obvious answer is that hydrogen chloride would strongly attract water, which would form hydrochloric acid, and that would react with any oxide or carbonate in the dust to make chloride salts. If that sounds circular, yes it is, but there is a net degradation of water; oxygen or oxides would be formed, and hydrogen would be lost to space. The loss would not be very great, of course, because we are talking about parts per billion in a highly rarefied upper atmosphere and only during a dust storm.

Hydrogen chloride would also be emitted during volcanic eruptions, but that is probably able to be eliminated here because Mars no longer has volcanic eruptions. Fumarole emissions would be too wet to get to the upper atmosphere, and if they occurred, and there is no evidence they still do, any hydrochloric acid would be expected to react with oxides, such as the iron oxide that makes Mars look red, rather quickly.  So the unfortunate effect is that the space program is running up against the law of diminishing returns. We are getting more and more information that involves ever-decreasing levels of importance. Rutherford once claimed that physics was the only science – the rest was stamp collecting.  Well, he can turn in his grave because to me this is rather expensive stamp collecting.

Is There a Planet 9?

Before I start, I should remind everyone of the solar system yardstick: the unit of measurement called the Astronomical Unit, or AU, which is the distance from Earth to the Sun. I am also going to define a mass unit, the emu, which is the mass of the Earth, or Earth mass unit.

As you know, there are eight planets, with the furthest out being Neptune, which is 30 AU from the Sun. Now the odd thing is, Neptune is a giant of 17 emu, Uranus is only about 14.5 emu, so there is more to Neptune than Uranus, even though it is about 12 AU further out. So, the obvious question is, why do the planets stop at Neptune, and that question can be coupled with, “Do they?” The first person to be convinced there had to be at least one more was Percival Lowell, he of Martian canal fame, and he built himself a telescope and searched but failed to find it. The justification was that Neptune’s orbit appeared to be perturbed by something. That was quite reasonable as Neptune had been found by perturbations in Uranus’ orbit that were explained by Neptune. So the search was on. Lowell calculated the approximate position of the ninth planet, and using Lowell’s telescope, Clyde Tombaugh discovered what he thought was planet 9.  Oddly, this was announced on the anniversary of Lowell’s birthday, Lowell now being dead. As it happened, this was an accidental coincidence. Pluto is far too small to affect Neptune, and it turns out Neptune’s orbit did not have the errors everyone thought it did – another mistake. Further, Neptune, as with the other planets has an almost circular obit but Pluto’s is highly elliptical, spending some time inside Neptune’s orbit and sometimes as far away as 49 AU from the Sun. Pluto is not the only modest object out there: besides a lot of smaller objects there is Quaoar (about half Pluto’s size) and Eris (about Pluto’s size). There is also Sedna, (about 40% Pluto’s size) that has an elliptical orbit that varies the distance to the sun from 76 AU to 900 AU.

This raises a number of questions. Why did planets stop at 30 AU here? Why is there no planet between Uranus and Neptune? We know HR 8977 has four giants like ours, and the Neptune equivalent is about 68 AU from the star, and that Neptune-equivalent is about 6 times the mass of Jupiter. The “Grand Tack” mechanism explains our system by arguing that cores can only grow by major bodies accreting what are called planetesimals, which are bodies about the size of asteroids, and cores cannot grow further out than Saturn. In this mechanism, Neptune and Uranus formed near Saturn and were thrown outwards and lifted by throwing a mass of planetesimals inwards, the “throwing”: being due to gravitational interactions. To do this there had to be a sufficient mass of planetesimals, which gets back to the question, why did they stop at 30 AU?

One of the advocates for Planet 9 argued that Planet 9, which was supposed to have a highly elliptical orbit itself, caused the elliptical orbits of Sedna and some other objects. However, this has also been argued to be due to an accidental selection of a small number of objects, and there are others that don’t fit. One possible cause of an elliptical orbit could be a close encounter with another star. This does happen. In 1.4 million years Gliese 710, which is about half the mass of the Sun, will be about 10,000 AU from the Sun, and being that close, it could well perturb orbits of bodies like Sedna.

Is there any reason to believe a planet 9 could be there? As it happens, the exoplanets encylopaedia lists several at distances greater that 100 AU, and in some case several thousand AU. That we see them is because they are much larger than Jupiter, and they have either been in a good configuration for gravitational lensing or they are very young. If they are very young, the release of gravitational energy raises them to temperatures where they emit yellow-white light. When they get older, they will fade away and if there were such a planet in our system, by now it would have to be seen by reflected light. Since objects at such great distances move relatively slowly they might be seen but not recognized as planets, and, of course, studies that are looking for something else usually encompass a wide sky, which is not suitable for planet searching.For me, there is another reason why there might be such a planet. In my ebook, “Planetary Formation and Biogenesis” I outline a mechanism by which the giants form, which is similar to that of forming a snowball: if you press ices/snow together and it is suitably close to its melting point, it melt-fuses, so I predict the cores will form from ices known to be in space: Jupiter – water; Saturn – methanol/ammonia/water; Uranus – methane/argon; Neptune – carbon monoxide/nitrogen. If you assume Jupiter formed at the water ice temperature, the other giants are in the correct place to within an AU or so. However, there is one further ice not mentioned: neon. If it accreted a core then it would be somewhere greater than 100 AU.  I cannot be specific because the melting point of neon is so low that a number of other minor and ignorable effects are now significant, and cannot be ignored. So I am hoping there is such a planet there.