What Started Civilization?

I am fascinated by the question when did civilization start? This question, of course, depends on what you mean by civilization. I assume the first step would involve a person becoming more skilled at just one thing, and trade that product for all the other things he/she wanted. That is necessary, but not sufficient. Perhaps, rather arbitrarily, I am going to define it as when people started to specialize sufficiently that they had to stay in one place. Now, food became a problem because the same area had to sustain the tribe, which might lead to the weeding of the undesirable and planting and tending the desirable. I suspect the first real such industry would be flint knapping. Someone who could make really sharp arrow-heads could trade them for meat, but the flint knapper would need to remain near the best supplies of flint.

Evidence for trade goes back at least 300,000 years, because the remains of a tribe has been found that used ochre for decoration, and the nearest ochre deposits were over a hundred kilometers away. Trade, however, does not mean specialization. What presumably happened was that the very small tribes (which may have been little more than a few families) would go to an annual get-together, trade, socialize, exchange young women (because small tribes need to keep up genetic diversity) then go back to where they can feed themselves. Neanderthals also lived in small groupings and probably maintained the same type of lifestyle. Is that civilization?

The stone-knapper would be the equivalent of a tradesperson, doing one job for one person at a time. Maybe that does not qualify. (Whether it does depends on whatever definition you choose. This problem persists in modern science where only too many silly ideas are conveyed by terms that become misinterpreted.) However, I feel that a processing plant really does qualify. For this you need a fixed site, a continual source of raw material, and to get scale, you need a number of customers. So what came first? It appears there are at least two contenders.

The first is bread. An archaeological site in Jordan that was occupied 14,000 years ago has unearthed a bakery, and the remains of bread. This was made by grinding wild wheat and wild barley to a flour, pounding tubers of wild plants that grow in water, mixing these together to make a dough and then bake it on hot stones around a fire. Microscopic examination of the remains shows clear evidence of grinding, sieving and kneading. The people were hunter-gatherers, and would eat meat from gazelles down to hares and birds, together with whatever plant foods they could forage. That the large stone oven remains here today shows this activity was in a fixed place.

The second contender comes from a dig near Haifa. They found stone mortars 60 cm deep used for pounding various species of plants, including oats and legumes. The evidence was that besides a place where food was prepared, they also made beer. Grain was germinated to produce malt, then the resulting mash was heated, then fermented with wild yeast to produce a “beer”.  This beer was probably more like an alcoholic porridge than what we thing of as beer, but it was an industry.It would be fascinating if it were beer that was the cause of civilization The need for beer would require grain, and because you could not carry around these large mortars, you would prefer to have your grain close, and in regular supply. Regular supply means storing it because grain is seasonal. Growing enough to keep a good beer supply means farming, and keeping the rats out of the grain. As it happens, cats have become domesticated for about 13,000 years. Your household cat is probably the clue.